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英语语法-定语从句

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发表于 2018-7-8 13:15:17 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
定语从句(Attributive Clauses)在句中做定语,修饰一个名词或代词,被修饰的名词,词组或代词即先行词。定语从句通常出现在先行词之后,由关系词(关系代词或关系副词)引出。
关系代词有:who, whom, whose, that, which等。
关系副词有:when, where, why等。
关系代词引导的定语从句
关系代词所代替的先行词是人或物的名词或代词,并在句中充当主语、宾语、定语等成分。关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的人称和数要和先行词保持一致。

1)who, whom, that
这些词代替的先行词是人的名词或代词,在从句中所起作用如下:
Is he the man who/that wants to see you? 他就是想见你的人吗?(who/that在从句中作主语)
He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday. 他就是我昨天见的那个人。(whom/that在从句中作宾语)
2)Whose
用来指人或物,(只用作定语, 若指物,它还可以同of which互换),例如:
They rushed over to help the man whose car had broken down. 那人车坏了,大家都跑过去帮忙。
Please pass me the book whose (of which) cover is green. 请递给我那本绿皮的书。
3)which, that
它们所代替的先行词是事物的名词或代词,在从句中可作主语、宾语等,例如:
A prosperity which / that had never been seen before appears in the countryside. 农村出现了前所未有的繁荣。(which / that在句中作宾语)
The package (which / that) you are carrying is about to come unwrapped. 你拿的包快散了。(which / that在句中作宾语)

关系副词引导的定语从句
关系副词可代替的先行词是时间、地点或理由的名词,在从句中作状语。
1)when, where, why
关系副词when, where, why的含义相当于"介词+ which"结构,因此常常和"介词+ which"结构交替使用,例如:
There are occasions when (on which) one must yield. 任何人都有不得不屈服的时候。
Beijing is the place where (in which) I was born. 北京是我的出生地。
Is this the reason why (for which) he refused our offer? 这就是他拒绝我们帮助他的理由吗?
2)that代替关系副词
that可以用于表示时间、地点、方式、理由的名词后取代when, where, why和"介词+ which"引导的定语从句,在口语中that常被省略,例如:
His father died the year (that / when / in which) he was born. 他父亲在他出生那年逝世了。
He is unlikely to find the place (that / where / in which) he lived forty years ago. 他不大可能找到他四十年前居住过的地方。

发表于 7 天前 | 显示全部楼层
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