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[最游记] 【大耳朵双语最游记】SAN MARINO 圣马力诺(二)

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发表于 2011-8-21 17:42:16 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 clafouti 于 2011-8-21 17:43 编辑

Capital     San Marino
Languages   
The language spoken is Italian.
Religions   
Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion.
Economy   
Although San Marino is not an official European Union member, it is allowed to use the euro as its currency by virtue of arrangements with the council of the European Union; it is also granted the right to use its own designs on the national side of the euro coins. Before the Euro, the Sammarinese lira was coupled to and exchangeable with the Italian lira.   The small number of Sammarinese euro coins, as was the case with the the lire, are primarily of interest to coin collectors.
The tourist sector contributes over 50% of San Marino"s GDP, with more than 3.3 million tourists visiting in 1997. The key industries are banking, electronics, and ceramics. The main agricultural products are wine and cheese.  San Marino"s postage stamps, which are only valid within the country, are mostly sold to philatelists and also form a source of income.  The per capita level of output and standard of living are comparable to those of Italy, which supplies much of its food.
Currency C euro   
Monaco, San Marino and the Vatican City, which formerly used the French franc or the Italian lira as their currency now use the euro as their currency and are licensed to mint their own euro coins in small amounts even though they are not EU states.  The euro (€; currency code EUR) is the currency of twelve European Union member states: Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain, collectively known as the Eurozone.
Main Sporting Events and Achievement in Olympics   
The national football association has been a member of FIFA since 1988.  San Marino has only ever won one international game, a 1-0 win over Liechtenstein in a friendly 2004. Despite the lack of success at international level, San Marino holds the record for the fastest ever goal in World Cup history. In a World Cup qualifier against England in 1993, David Gualtieri scored after just 8 seconds, before succumbing 7-1.  Some of the best performance from San Marino in World Cup qualifier was when they held Turkey to a 0-0 draw in Serravalle on 28 March 1993, as well as 1-1 draw with Latvia in 2001 in another World Cup qualifiers.
One of the Formula One races, the San Marino Grand Prix, is named after the state, although it does not actually take place in San Marino.  San Marino itself is considered too small to hold its own grand prix. It takes place at the Autodromo Enzo e Dino Ferrari in the Italian town of Imola, about 100km northwest of San Marino, along the Via Emilia.
The 2004 Summer Olympics was San Marino’s twelfth participation of the Summer Olympics.  It competed in 11 other Olympic Summer Games, these being 1960, 1964, 1968, 1972, 1976, 1980, 1984, 1988, 1992, 1996, and 2000.  No athlete from San Marino has won a medal to this date.
Culture   
The country and its culture are now tourist attractions, though its musical heritage is long and varied. In the 17th century, composers like Francesco Maria Marini di Pesaro wrote some of the finest pieces of the era.  Since 1894, a wordless composition by Federico Consolo has been the national anthem of San Marino. The piece is based off a 10th century chorale composition.


教育体系
   
政府承担儿童的权利和福利事务,建立了充分的公共教育和医疗保健基金。 教育在13年级(通常18岁)前是免费的,义务教育持续到16岁。大多数学生直到18岁仍留在学校。在教育上男孩和女孩没有明显的差别。据报道,强制性小学教育是从在6到11岁。
人口      
全国人口不足29000人,包括5000名居住在国外的圣马力诺人(Sammarineses)和1000名居住在圣马力诺的外国人。 由于被意大利围绕,圣马力诺人和意大利人没有什么区别。 很多意大利人居住在圣马力诺。
首都   圣马力诺
语言    语言是意大利语。
宗教信仰   罗马天主教是主要的教派。
经济   
虽然圣马力诺不是欧盟的成员,但按照欧盟理事会的决定,允许它将欧元作为它的流通货币;它也被授权在欧元硬币的国家那一面上使用自己的设计。在欧元之前,圣马力诺里拉能与意大利里拉兑换。 少数圣马力诺欧元硬币,也和里拉一样成为硬币收藏家的主要兴趣。
旅游部门的收入占圣马力诺GDP的50%,在1997年旅游者超过330万。主要产业有银行业,电子业和制陶业。主要的农作物是葡萄酒和干酪。圣马力诺的邮票,仅在国内有效,大部分卖给了集邮家,这也是收入的一种来源。人均出口水平和生活水平可以和意大利相比,它为圣马力诺提供了大量食物。
货币-欧元  
摩纳哥、圣马力诺和梵蒂冈,以前使用法郎或意大利里拉作为他们的流通货币,现在开始使用欧元,虽然他们还不属于欧盟成员,仍被允许少量铸造自己的欧元硬币。欧元(货币符号€;货币代码EUR)是十二个欧盟成员国的流通货币:奥地利,比利时,芬兰,法国,德国,希腊,爱尔兰,意大利,卢森堡,荷兰,葡萄牙和西班牙,他们一起被称作欧元区。
主要的运动项目和奥运上取得的成就   
圣马力诺足协自1988年开始就是国际足球联盟的成员。圣马力诺仅在国际赛事中取得一次胜利,即2004年友谊赛中1:0胜列支敦士登。尽管在国际赛事中很少胜利,圣马力诺仍保持着在世界杯历史中最快进球记录。在1993年对英国的世界杯外围赛中,爱德华Gualtieri在第八秒中便射进一球,但最终1:7惨败。 在世界杯预选赛中圣马力诺最好的成绩是1993年3月28日在Serravalle以0:0逼平土耳其和2001年1:1逼平拉脱维亚。
一级方程式圣马力诺站-圣马力诺国际汽车大奖赛,虽然它并不在圣马力诺举行,但这一赛事仍以该国命名。圣马力诺由于太小而无法举办此赛事,因而选在意大利的Imola镇的Autodromo Enzo e Dino Ferrari,那里距离圣马力诺西北100公里,沿途经过Emilia。
2004夏季奥运会是圣马力诺第十二次参加夏季奥运会。它参加的其他11次奥运会分别在1960, 1964, 1968, 1972, 1976, 1980, 1984, 1988, 1992, 1996和 2000年。至今还没有圣马力诺运动员获得过奖牌。
文化      
该国和它的文化吸引了很多游客,它的音乐遗产历史悠久且呈现多样化的形式。17世纪,作曲家Francesco Maria Marini di Pesaro编写了关于那个时代最好的片断的歌曲。自1894年来,未经记载的Federico Consolo成为了圣马力诺的国歌。这首歌是源于一首10世纪的赞美诗歌。
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