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57课件

已有 1152 次阅读2011-4-24 11:00 |个人分类:课件

(一)单词讲解:
hesitate 
犹豫,迟疑
If you hesitate too long, you will miss the opportunity.
如果你老是犹豫不决, 那就会错失良机。
He hesitated before entering the room.
他进屋之前犹豫了一下。
hesitate to do something. 不愿意做某事
He hesitated to take such a big risk.
他不情愿冒这样大的险。
I hesitate to ask him to lend me some money.
我不愿去向他借钱。
Don't hesitate 不要不好意思 Don't hesitate to ask me if you need any help.
如果需要我帮忙,尽管告诉我,不要不好意思。

serve 接待  serve you right. 活该
向…供应
The restaurant serves many kinds of cuisine.
这家饭馆供应许多种风味。
serve as 作为 用作 担任
The entrance hall also serves as a dining-room.
这门厅又作饭厅。
scornfully adv.轻蔑地  
scorn  v.鄙视;轻蔑  scornful  scornful look on his face 面带轻蔑
They have learned to scorn difficulties .
他们学会了藐视困难。
You have no right to scorn a poor girl.
你无权对一个可怜的女孩子表示轻蔑。
n.固定搭配:pour scorn on 对(某事物)表示鄙视
            He poured scorn on my suggestion。    She poured scorn on my ideas.
            他对我的建议表示轻蔑。                她对我的观点不屑一顾.
同义词 despise Honest boys despise lies and liars.
               诚实的孩子鄙视谎言和说谎者。
同义词组 look down upon

punish 处罚,惩罚   punisher 惩罚者
punish sb. for 因......而惩罚某人
You can't punish me for something I didn't do.
你不能为我没做过的事情而惩罚我。
It's a bit strong to punish her for such a small thing.
为那么点小事就惩罚她未免有些过分了。
punish sb. with 用......惩罚某人
For his crime, the court will punish him with two years in prison.
关于他的罪行,法院会判他二年徒刑。
eager 热切的,热情地 指有进取的热情而迫切希望获得或急于做某事
常作表语,后接to do或for,about
He is eager to travel.他很想旅行。
He is eager for knowlege.  他渴望知识.
She is eager about her progress. 她渴望取得进步。
keen 热心的,热切的 指由于极大兴趣或欲望促使去做某事
The parents were keen that their daughter should become musician.
父母渴望他们的女儿成为音乐家
He is not very keen on jazz. 
他对爵士音乐不太感兴趣。
Are you keen on photographing? 
你对摄影感兴趣吗?
anxious 焦急的, 忧虑的, 担心的也有渴望的、急切的意思  具有“焦急,担心,着急”的心情,害怕自己的希望或愿望不能实现
She looks anxious.
她面带忧虑的神色。
I was anxious for everything to be settled.
我渴望每一件事都安排妥当。
 
 
 
(二)课文详解:
1. The assistant who served her did not like the way she was dressed.
接待她的售货员不喜欢她的那副打扮,
 以 the way为先行词的定语从句通常由in which,that引导,而且通常可以省略。
The way in which/that he answered the question was surprising.
他回答问题的方式很惊人。
 
2.Glancing at her scornful, he told her that the dress was sold.
轻蔑地看了她一眼后,便告诉她那件衣服已经卖出去了。
glance,stare,glare 的区别
1) glance
v. to look for a very short time 瞥一眼
   He glanced at his watch. 他看了一下手表。
   She glanced down the list of names. 她大致看了一下名单。
n. She cast a quick glance at her notes and began to speak. 她瞥了一眼笔记,然后开始发言。
   At first glance the essay looked quite good, but actually it was full of mistakes.
   乍一看,这篇散文似乎不错,但实际上文章错误百出。
   at a glance = at once 立刻  She saw at a glance that he'd been crying.
                               她一看就知道他哭过了。
2) stare
v. to look steadily at someone or something for a long time. 凝视;盯着看
   She stared at him curiously. 她好奇地盯着他看。
   固定搭配:stare someone in the face (指问题的答案)清清楚楚的
   The solution is staring us in the face—let's borrow the money. 解决的方法很清楚—我们去借钱。
   固定搭配:stare sb. out  to make a person look away by looking at them steadily for a long time.
n. She gave him a long cool stare. 她冷冷地盯着他看了好一会。
 
3) glare
v. to look at someone in an angry way 怒目而视
   They didn't fight, but stood there glaring at one another.他们没有打起来,只是站在那里怒目相视。
n. 怒视  He gave me a fierce glare. 他恶狠狠地瞪了我一眼。
   the glare 强光的不良刺激
   She put on her dark glasses to reduce the glare of the sun.
   她戴上墨镜,以减少太阳光对眼睛的刺激。
glaring = too bright 耀眼的 刺目的
  
 

3. She returned to the shop the following morning dressed in a fur coat, with a handbag in one hand and a long umbrella in the other.
第二天上午,她又来到这家商店,穿了一件裘皮大衣,一手拎着一只手提包,另一只手拿着一把长柄伞。
follwoing 
The following day/week/year 第二天/周/年
The following n.下列;下述 adj.下述的;下列的
Please bring with you the following things: a change of clothes,shoes,a towel and some food.
请你随身携带下列物品:衣服、鞋子、毛巾和食物。
The following have been chosen to play in tomorrow's match.
现已选定下列人员参加明天的比赛。
with 可以引导复合结构,在句中可以作状语。
1) with+宾语+介词
They walked to the fields with baskets full of seeds on their shoulders.
2) with+宾语+过去分词(表被动)
All the afternoon he worked with the door locked.
3) with+宾语+现在分词(表主动)
With winter coming on, it is time to buy warm clothes.
 
 
4. After seeking out the rude assistant, she asked for the same dress.
找到那个无礼的售货员后,她要求看昨天的那件衣服。
seek sb./sth. out为固定短语,表示“找出”、“搜寻出” = research out;
I can seek the man out without any difficulty since he has a big scar on his face.
seek for = look for = search for 寻找
另外要注意的是seek是不规则变换动词: seek - sought - sought
 
 
5. Not realizing who she was, the assistant was eager to serve her this time.
分词短语“not realizing” not realizing who she was 分词作状语 原因状语从句
分词作原因状语:
Not having heard from her son for a long time, the mother worried a great deal.
由于长时间没有收到儿子的信,母亲非常焦急。
Given advice by the famous detective, the young lady was no longer afraid.
有了著名侦探的指点,这位姑娘不再害怕了。
分词作状语可以表示时间、原因、条件、结果、让步和方式等情况,通常放在句首或者句尾(作状语的分词与主句之间往往用逗号隔开),在正常情况下分词的逻辑主语就是主句的主语。
1)作时间状语 Working in the factory(=While he worked in the factory), he was an advanced worker.
在工厂工作时,他是一名先进工人。
2)作方式状语(表示伴随的动作)
He stayed at home, cleaning and washing.
他待在家里,又擦又洗。
3)作结果状语
He dropped the glass, breaking it into pieces.
他把杯子掉了,结果摔得粉碎。
4)作条件状语
Taken in time, the medicine will be quite effective.
吃得及时,这药会非常有效。
5)作让步状语
Considered as a building material, wood is not very strong.
木材可以用作建筑材料,但不很结实。
6)作原因状语
上面讲过了。
 

6. With great difficulty, he climbed into the shop window to get the dress. As soon as she saw it ,the woman said she did not like it.
费了好大劲儿,他爬进橱窗去取那件衣服。这位妇女对那件衣服只看一眼,就说不喜欢。
with构成的一些习惯用语:
with the help of 在......帮助下
with one's help 靠某人的帮助
with one's permission 经某人允许
with a firm hand 坚决地
with open arms 热情地
with the exception of 除......之外
with a will 起劲地
 

7. She enjoyed herself making the assistant bring almost everything in the window before finally buying the dress she had first asked for.
她开心地迫使那位售货员把橱窗里几乎所有的东西都拿了出来,最后买下了她最先看的那件。
1)bring almost everything in the window是宾补,before finally buying the dress是状语,she had first asked for是定语从句。
2)make,let,have后面的动词不定式不加to,即make/have/let sb. do sth.,这三个动词是使役动词
have/make/let+宾语+动词原形(主动) have/make+宾语+过去分词+过去分词(被动)  let+宾语+be+过去分词(被动)
 
(三)语法分析:
独立主格:
独立主格一般由“(with/without)+名词/代词+分词/介词词组/形容词词组/不定式”构成,在句中作状语,表示时间、条件、伴随、原因等。
She returned to the shop the following morning, with a handbag in one hand.
She(句子主语) returned to the shop the following morning, with a handbag(逻辑主语) in one hand(介词词组).
The customers queue quietly in front of the counter, the assistant eager to serve them.
The customers(句子主语) queue quietly in front of the counter, the assistant(逻辑主语) eager to serve them(介词词组).
I had to go back home to watch TV, all tickets sold out.
I(句子主语) had to go back home to watch TV, all tickets(逻辑主语) sold out(介词词组).

说明1:介词词组、形容词词组及分词短语都可充当独立主格结构的谓语部分,它们有自己的逻辑主语,与句子主语不一致。
但分词短语单独作状语时,其逻辑主语必须与句子主语保持一致。
之前讲过的:Not realizing who she was, the assistant was eager to serve her this time. 就是一个例子
说明2:独立主格常充当伴随、原因或条件状语。作伴随状语时,可由with或without引出,也可省去with.

She returned to the classroom,(        ). 她回到教室,手里拿着本书。
A. a book in hand        B. with a book in her hand
C. with a book in hand   D. book in hand
B和D "名词+介词词组"作独立主格时,可由with引出,若要省去with,通常连限定词同时省去。

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